Installation
Setting up Masonite is extremely simple.
If you are using the Masonite web framework than all the installation is setup for you. If you are using anything other than Masonite or building your own Python application then be sure to follow the install steps below:

Pip install

First install via pip:
$ pip install masonite-orm

Configuration

To start configuring your project you will need a configuration file. In this file we will be able to put all our connection information.

Location

Masonite ORM will expect a configuration file to be located at config/database.py.
It can be changed through an environment variable named DB_CONFIG_PATH and should contain the relative path to the configuration file
DB_CONFIG_PATH=app/options/db.py
When running commands, the configuration file path can be overriden with the --config or -C flag.
masonite-orm migrate -C app/options/db.py
else DB_CONFIG_PATH will take precedance if defined and will default to config/database.py if not defined.

Options

Once we have our configuration file we can put a DATABASES variable with a dictionary of connection details. Each key will be the name of our connection. The connection name can be whatever you like and does not need to relate to a database name. Common connection names could be something like dev, prod and staging. Feel free to name these connections whatever you like.
The connection variable will look something like this
# config/database.py
DATABASES = {
"default": "mysql",
"mysql": {
"host": "127.0.0.1",
"driver": "mysql",
"database": "masonite",
"user": "root",
"password": "",
"port": 3306,
"log_queries": False,
"options": {
#
}
},
"postgres": {
"host": "127.0.0.1",
"driver": "postgres",
"database": "masonite",
"user": "root",
"password": "",
"port": 5432,
"log_queries": False,
"options": {
#
}
},
"sqlite": {
"driver": "sqlite",
"database": "masonite.sqlite3",
}
}
Lastly you will need to import the ConnectionResolver class and and register the connection details. Normal convention is to set this to a variable called DB:
# config/database.py
from masoniteorm.connections import ConnectionResolver
DATABASES = {
# ...
}
DB = ConnectionResolver().set_connection_details(DATABASES)
After this you have successfully setup Masonite ORM in your project!

Database URL

Masonite ORM supports database URL in configuration options. You just have to import the db_url helper and use it to define the connection
from masoniteorm.config import db_url
DATABASES = {
"default": "mysql",
"mysql": db_url(),
}
This will use the value defined in DATABASE_URL environment variable by default. If you want to use an other environment variable you just have to do:
import os
from masoniteorm.config import db_url
DATABASES = {
"default": "mysql",
"mysql": db_url(os.getenv("DB_URL")),
}
or you can specify the database url directly:
from masoniteorm.config import db_url
DATABASES = {
"default": "mysql",
"mysql": db_url("mysql://root:@127.0.0.1:3306/masonite"),
}
If you need to specify other options for the connection that do not appear in the url you can pass those options are keyword parameters to db_url:
from masoniteorm.config import db_url
DATABASES = {
"default": "mysql",
"mysql": db_url("mysql://root:@127.0.0.1:3306/masonite", log_queries=True, prefix="", options={}),
}
You can even use it with SQLite:
db_url("sqlite://")
db_url("sqlite://masonite.sqlite3")

MSSQL

Masonite ORM supports Microsoft SQL Server and several options to modify the connection string. All available options are:
"mssql": {
"host": "127.0.0.1",
"driver": "mssql",
"database": "masonite",
"user": "root",
"password": "",
"port": 1433,
"log_queries": False,
"options": {
"trusted_connection": "Yes",
"integrated_security": "sspi",
"instance": "SQLExpress",
"authentication": "ActiveDirectoryPassword",
"driver": "ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server",
"connection_timeout": 15,
}
},

Transactions

You can use global level database transactions easily by importing the connection resolver class:
from config.database import DB
DB.begin_transaction()
User.create({..})
You can then either rollback or commit the transactions:
DB.commit()
DB.rollback()
You may also optionally pass the connection you'd like to use:
DB.begin_transaction("staging")
DB.commit("staging")
DB.rollback("staging")
You can also use the transaction as a context manager:
with DB.transaction():
User.create({..})
If there are any exceptions in inside the context then the transaction will be rolled back. Else it will commit the transaction.

Logging

If you would like, you can log any queries Masonite ORM generates to any supported Python logging handler. First you need to enable logging in config/database.py file through the log_queries boolean parameter.
Inside your config/database.py file you can put on the bottom here. The StreamHandler will output the queries to the terminal.
logger = logging.getLogger('masoniteorm.connection.queries')
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
handler = logging.StreamHandler()
logger.addHandler(handler)
You can specify as many handlers as you would like. Here's an example of logging to both the terminal and a file:
logger = logging.getLogger('masoniteorm.connection.queries')
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
handler = logging.StreamHandler()
file_handler = logging.FileHandler('queries.log')
logger.addHandler(handler)
logger.addHandler(file_handler)

Raw Queries

You can query the database directly using the connection resolver class. If you set the connection resolver to the variable DB you can import it like:
from config.database import DB
result = DB.statement("select * from users where users.active = 1")
You may also pass query bindings as well to protect against SQL injection by passing a list of bindings:
from config.database import DB
result = DB.statement("select * from users where users.active = '?'", [1])
This will use the default connection but you may also optionally pass a connection to use:
from config.database import DB
result = DB.statement("select * from users where users.active = '?'", [1], connection="production")