Schema & Migrations

Migrations are used to build and modify your database tables. This is done through use of migration files and the Schema class. Migration files are really just wrappers around the Schema class as well as a way for Masonite to manage which migrations have run and which ones have not.

Creating Migrations

Creating migrations are easy with the migration commands. To create one simply run:

$ masonite-orm migration migration_for_users_table

This will create a migration file for you and put it in the databases/migrations directory.

If you want to create a starter migration, that is a migration with some boilerplate of what you are planning to do, you can use the --table and --create flag:

$ masonite-orm migration migration_for_users_table --create users

This will setup a migration for you with some boiler plate on creating a new table

$ masonite-orm migration migration_for_users_table --table users

This will setup a migration for you for boiler plate on modifying an existing table.

Building Migrations

To start building up your migration, simply modify the up method and start adding any of the available methods below to your migration.

A simple example would look like this for a new table:

class MigrationForUsersTable(Migration):
def up(self):
"""
Run the migrations.
"""
with self.schema.create("users") as table:
table.increments('id')
table.string('username')
table.string('email').unique()
table.string('password')
table.boolean('is_admin')
table.integer('age')
table.timestamps()
def down(self):
"""
Revert the migrations.
"""
self.schema.drop("users")

Available Methods

Command

Description

table.string()

The varchar version of the table. Can optional pass in a length table.string('name', length=181)

table.integer()

The INT version of the database. Can also specify a length table.integer('age', length=5)

table.increments()

The auto incrementing version of the table. An unsigned non nullable auto incrementing integer.

table.big_increments()

An unsigned non nullable auto incrementing big integer. Use this if you expect the rows in a table to be very large

table.binary()

BINARY equivalent column. Sometimes is text field on unsupported databases.

table.boolean()

BOOLEAN equivalent column.

table.char()

CHAR equivalent column.

table.json()

JSON equivalent column.

table.date()

DATE equivalent column.

table.year()

YEAR equivalent column.

table.datetime()

DATETIME equivalent column.

table.timestamp()

TIMESTAMP equivalent column.

table.time()

TIME equivalent column.

table.timestamps()

Creates created_at and updated_at columns on the table with the timestamp column and defaults to the current time.

table.decimal()

DECIMAL equivalent column. Can also specify the length and decimal position. table.decimal('salary', 17, 6)

table.double()

DOUBLE equivalent column. Can also specify a float length table.double('salary', 17,6)

table.enum()

ENUM equivalent column. You can also specify available options as a list. table.enum('flavor', ['chocolate', 'vanilla']). Sometimes defaults to a TEXT field with a constraint on unsupported databases.

table.text()

TEXT equivalent column.

table.unsigned_integer()

UNSIGNED INT equivalent column.

table.tiny_integer()

TINY INT equivalent column.

table.small_integer()

SMALL INT equivalent column.

table.medium_integer()

MEDIUM INT equivalent column.

table.big_integer()

BIG INT equivalent column.

table.tiny_increments()

TINY auto incrementing equivalent column.

table.unsigned()

Alias for unsigned_integer

table.soft_deletes()

A nullable DATETIME column named deleted_at. This is used by the SoftDeletes scope.

Changes & Rolling Back Migrations

In addition to building up the migration, you should also build onto the down method which should reverse whatever was done in the up method. If you create a table in the up method, you should drop the table in the down method.

Command

Description

table.drop_table()

DROP TABLE equivalent statement.

table.drop_table_if_exists()

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS equivalent statement.

table.drop_column()

DROP COLUMN equivalent statement. Can take one or multiple column names. drop_column('column1', 'column2')

table.drop_index()

Drops the constraint. Must pass in the name of the constraint. drop_index('email_index')

table.drop_unique()

Drops the uniqueness constraint. Must pass in the name of the constraint. table.drop_unique('users_email_unique')

table.drop_foreign()

Drops the foreign key. Must specify the index name. table.drop_foreign('users_article_id_foreign')

table.rename()

Renames a column to a new column. Must take the old column name, new column and data type. table.rename("user_id", "profile_id", "unsigned_integer")

table.drop_primary()

Drops the primary key constraint. Must pass in the constraint name table.drop_primary('users_id_primary')

Getting Migration Status

At any time you can get the migrations that have run or need to be ran:

$ masonite-orm migrate:status

Seeing Migration SQL Dumps

If you would like to see just the SQL that would run instead of running the actual migrations, you can specify the -s flag (short for --show). This works on the migrate and migrate:rollback commands.

python craft migrate -s

Refreshing Migrations

Refreshing a database is simply rolling back all migrations and then migrating again. This "refreshes" your database.

You can refresh by running the command:

$ masonite-orm migrate:refresh

Modifiers

In addition to the available columns you can use, you can also specify some modifers which will change the behavior of the column:

Command

Description

.nullable()

Allows NULL values to be inserted into the column.

.unique()

Forces all values in the column to be unique.

.after()

Adds the column after another column in the table. Can be used like table.string('is_admin').after('email').

.unsigned()

Makes the column unsigned. Used with the table.integer('age').unsigned() column.

.use_current()

Makes the column use the CURRENT_TIMESTAMP modifer.

.default(value)

Specify a default value for the column. Can be used like table.boolean("is_admin").default(False)

Indexes

In addition to columns, you can also create indexes. Below are the available indexes you can create:

Command

Description

table.primary()

Make the column use the PRIMARY KEY modifer.

table.unique()

Makes a unique index. Can pass in a column table.unique('email') or list of columns table.unique(['email', 'phone_number']).

table.index()

Creates an index on the column. table.index('email')

table.fulltext()

Creates an fulltext index on the column or columns. table.fulltext('email'). Note this only works for MySQL databases and will be ignored on other databases.

The default primary key is often set to an auto-incrementing integer, but you can use UUID instead.

Foreign Keys

If you want to create a foreign key you can do so simply as well:

table.foreign('local_column').references('other_column').on('other_table')

And optionally specify an on_delete or on_update method:

table.foreign('local_column').references('other_column').on('other_table').on_update('set null')

You can use these options:

Command

Description

.on_update('set null')

Sets the ON UPDATE SET NULL property on the constraint.

.on_update('cascade')

Sets the ON UPDATE CASCADE property on the constraint.

.on_delete('set null')

Sets the ON DELETE SET NULL property on the constraint.

.on_delete('cascade')

Sets the ON DELETE CASCADE property on the constraint.

Changing Columns

If you would like to change a column you should simply specify the new column and then specify a .change() method on it.

Here is an example of changing an email field to a nullable field:

class MigrationForUsersTable(Migration):
def up(self):
"""
Run the migrations.
"""
with self.schema.table("users") as table:
table.string('email').nullable().change()
with self.schema.table("users") as table:
table.string('email').unique()
def down(self):
"""
Revert the migrations.
"""
pass

Truncating

You can truncate a table:

schema.truncate("users")

You can also temporarily disable foreign key checks and truncate a table:

schema.truncate("users", foreign_keys=False)

Dropping a Table

You can drop a table:

schema.drop_table("users")

Dropping a Table If It Exists

You can drop a table if it exists:

schema.drop_table_if_exists("users")